telangana peasant movement ncert

While the undivided Communist Party of India had provided leadership to both the Tebhaga Movement and Telangana Rebellion at its inception, the Communist Party of India—and its breakaway faction, the Communist Party of India (Marxist)—had become so engrossed with Parliamentary politics that they had to deviate heavily from Marxism-Leninism to the extent that none of the Parties remained “Communist” in their politics. •Deccan Riots of 1857 against money lenders. From the Santhal Rebellion of 1856 to the Indigo Rebellion of 1859-60, these peasant movements and rebellions were able to display—albeit, rudimentarily—the appalling conditions and misery that British imperialism and its support for the upper caste landlord classes had brought for the Indian peasantry, especially the poor and landless peasants. The 1952 elections led to the victory of the Congress party in Hyderabad state. When the goons of a landlord brutally beat up a sharecropper who had won a judicial order to reap the crops in his own plot of land, that was the moment when the fury of the peasantry was unleashed. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Movements NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED. At the same time, the Nizam resisted the Indian government's efforts to bring Hyderabad State into the Indian Union and also did not intend to join Pakistan. The peasant uprisings make an important topic for the IAS Exam from the context of Modern History. So that they could continue to engage poor and landless peasants to work on their landholdings, often for no compensation at all. The Indian government sent the army in September 1948 to annex Hyderabad. In this situation, the peasants led by local leaders Digambar Vishwas and Vishnu Vishwas started a movement. The most strident demand was for the writing off of all debts of the peasants that were manipulated by the feudal lords. Soon, however, the Movement took a political turn as the Rebellion sought to abolish the State of Hyderabad through the means of agrarian armed revolution. However, there have been some communist-led peasant revolts in the Telangana region since 1946. He defeated Chiang’s army four times. To understand the all-India strike that the peasantry of our country had called to protest against the passage of the two anti-people and anti-farmer bills, it is imperative to look back at the three significant peasant movements and uprisings that have shaped the collective consciousness of the Indian people, and to understand the lessons that we could learn from them so that the Indian peasantry would be ideologically equipped to fight for their liberation from imperialism and semi-feudalism. Telangana (/ ˌ t ɛ l ə n ˈ ɡ ɑː n ə / (), Telugu: [ˈtelanɡaːna]) is a state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. While a contemporary of the Tebhaga Movement, the Telangana Rebellion was the most significant peasant movement in the modern history of India. Puchchalapalli Sundaraiah went on to become the first leader of opposition in independent India.[6]. These sowed the seeds of the Maoist movement in India and which vegan the New Democratic Revolution in the country, which has continued for five decades through various twists and turns. At the time of Independence, we had the two most classical cases of peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-47) and the Telangana Movement … Telan gana was u nder the co ntrol . He became its chairperson in 1930. Tebhaga Movement in Bengal. They wanted proper working system. The last Nizam Asaf Jah VII was made the Rajpramukh of the Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 to 31 October 1956. Establishment of Telangana Rashtra Samithi in 2001, Political Realignment and Electoral Alliances in 2004 and later Phase of Telangana Movement – TRS in UPA- Girgliani Committee- Telangana Employees Joint Action Committee - Pranab Mukherjee Committee- 2009-Elections-AlliancesTelangana in Election Manifestos- The agitation against Hyderabad as Free-zone - and Demand for separate … Telangana Movement (Andhra Pradesh). Download NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science History Ruling the Countryside free pdf, NCERT Solutions updated as per latest NCERT book, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History for Chapter 3 Ruling the CountrysideLet’s recall1. These community governments were integrated regionally into a central organization. They ruled over the communities in the village and managed the tax collections (revenues) and owned almost all the land in that area. The history of agrarian unrest can be traced back to the first quarter of 1920s. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was first Chief Minister of the Hyderabad state from 1952 to 1956. They were against the Feudal System. The landlords were either killed or driven out and the land was redistributed. It later became a fight against Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII. This article will provide NCERT notes on the Deccan Riot of 1875. Background: Historical Evolution of the Telangana Movement. Agricultural wages were raised. The peasants organised by the Sabhas demanded freedom from economic exploitation for peasants, workers and all other exploited classes. 31.4 Radical Peasant Movements in India 31.5 Tebhaga Movement 31.6 Telangana Movement 31.7 Naxalite Movement 31.8 Emerging Agrarian Social Structure and Peasants Movements 31.9 Change in Collective Mobilization 31.10 Conclusion 31.1 Introduction The central concern of this unit is to examine the various dimensions of the peasant movements. Telangana Struggle: By July 1948, 2,500 villages in the south were organised into 'communes' as part of a peasant movement which came to be known as Telangana Struggle. Part One: Historical Setting", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs),[1] who were ruling the villages known as samsthans. This document is highly rated by … To advertise on Namasthe Telangana website contact [email protected]. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Social Movements NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED. [4], The rebellion and the subsequent police action led to the capture of Hyderabad state from the Nizam's rule on 17 September 1948 and after a temporary military administration, it was merged into India. It finally came to an end when the Government of West Bengal passed the Bargardari Act 1950, which incorporated the demands of the Tebhaga Movement. Biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history. For a long time, peasants and sharecroppers were forced to give up about 50% of the year’s harvest to the landlord, while they would have kept the remaining 50% for themselves. In 1839, more than 1.25 million people signed the People’s Charter asking for universal male suffrage, voting by ballot, and the right to stand for elections without owning property. Hyderabad was a classic example of maintaining feudal relations of production within its territory. They occurred time and again within the context of the colonial and semi-feudal exploitation that the British imperialists and their Indian compradors carried out against the peasant masses of our country. The agitation led by communists was successful in taking over 3000 villages from the feudal lords and 10,00,000 acres of agriculture land was distributed to landless peasants. It was supported by CPI. Simultaneously the famous Andhra Thesis for the first time demanded that 'Indian revolution' follow the Chinese path of protracted people's war. This was a significant blow for the Rebellion, and the Indian State was able to suppress the last of the armed peasant squads that the Rebellion had given birth to. Regarding allotment of vacant Shops & Stalls in the NCERT Buildings. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. Champaran Satyagraha (1917) 2. Known as the Historic Eight Documents, the essays were not only highly critical of the leadership of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), but it also provided a guide to action that would be used to organize and rouse the peasantry and the sharecroppers to revolutionary action. (c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act. download Peasant Revolts PDF for IAS Exam. Third, only a revolution led by the alliance of the working class and peasantry can guarantee liberation from the oppressive and exploitative system that all of us have to bear with, even in a seemingly “independent” country like India. [citation needed], The violent phase of the movement ended in 1951, when the last guerilla squads were subdued in the Telangana region. The movement took place between 1858 and 1914 remained localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. Telangana peasant movement was based on . While a contemporary of the Tebhaga Movement, the Telangana Rebellion was the most significant peasant movement in the modern history of India. The Nizam had little control over these regions except the capital, Hyderabad. Under the leadership of the undivided Communist Party of India, the Rebellion was able to liberate 3,000 villages from the oppressive rule of the landlords. The revolt ensured the victory of the Communist Party in Andhra Pradesh in the 1952 elections. At the time of Independence peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51) emerged; B. Telangana Movement- This was the biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history affecting 3000 villages and 3 million population. 4. Kheda Peasant Struggle 3. The Tebhaga Movement was a large-scale peasant movement that began in 1946, in what was then the undivided Bengal Province of British India. According to Sunderlal report which hasn't been officially released estimates that around 50,000 Muslims were massacred. In 1969, they broke off from the CPI (M) and a new party, Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI-ML), was formed under the leadership of Charu Majumdar. The passage of the two bills—while contravening the protocols and procedures of a bourgeois institution like the Parliament—is also indicative of how the Hindutva fascists are serving the interests of imperialism, bureaucrat capitalism and feudalism envisioned by big landlords. In the villages controlled by guerrillas, vethi and forced labour disappeared. (i) Women’s Movement: Early 20th Century saw the growth of women’s organisations such as ‘Women’s India Association (WLA) (1917)’ All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926), ‘National Council for Women in India (NEWI) (1925)’. Another significant aspect of the Telangana Rebellion was the Andhra Thesis. In June 1948, a leftist ideological… By India Fellow Social Leadership Program, Demand Action Against Caste-Based Discrimination, Tribal Freedom Fighters Who Fought For Their Land and People, “The Modi Govt Only Increased The Plight Of Farmers Through The Farm Bills”, History And Politics Have Caused Much Harm By ‘Queer-Coding’ Villains, Here’s How, Why The Covid Era Reminds Me Of British Raj, लखनऊ के अखिरी नवाब ‘वाजिद अली शाह’ की कहानी. Peasant Movements in Independent India. Telangana Movement (Andhra Pradesh). It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km 2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. The Telangana Movement (1946-52) of Andhra Pradesh was fought against the feudal oppression of the rulers and local landowners. The process of the sub-infeudation in the landholding accentuated the insecurity of the tenants and the poor peasants. He also started a guerilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army. Peasant Movements are a part of social movements against British atrocities in the 18th and 19th centuries of the British Colonial Period. Even before anti-imperialism became an ontologically separate ideology that motivated and informed the struggle of our country’s masses against British imperialism, a rudimentary anti-imperialist and anti-feudal outlook was demonstrated by the various peasant movements and rebellions. The agrarian social structure of Hyderabad emerged to be very oppressive in 1920s and thereafter. The Communist party had already instigated the peasants to use guerrilla tactics against the Razzakars and around 3000 villages (about 41000 km2) had come under peasant rule. The peasant movement in modern Indian history Indigo movement: - This movement started in 1859 in Govindpur village of Bengal. ADVERTISEMENTS: Peasant Movements: Telangana Peasant Struggle (1947-51)! NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization ... a Communist leader formed the Red Army. The Bardoli Movement in Gujarat 4. The textbooks attempt to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups and activities required for hands-on experience in the form of ‘Do This’, ‘Try This’ and ‘Projects’.. Teachers support is needed in the setting of situations in the classroom. Chakali Ilamma, belonging to the Rajaka caste, had revolted against 'zamindar' Ramachandra Reddy,[3] during the struggle when he tried to take her 4 acres of land. Agricultural wages were raised. Many of these concerns were adequately addressed in a series of polemical documents that Charu Mazumdar, a veteran of the Tebhaga Movement, had penned. The movement declined in 1947 due to crackdowns by the police, and the divisions that developed within the movement along religious lines. It had two kinds of land tenure systems, namely, raiyatwari and jagirdari. Telangana Movement- This was the biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history affecting 3000 villages and 3 million population. The Telangana Rebellion (IAST: tělaṃgāṇā věţţi cākiri udyamaṃ, "Telangana Bonded Labour Movement"; alternatively, tělaṃgāṇā raitāṃga sāyudha pōrāţaṃ, "Telangana Peasants Armed Struggle") was a peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and, later, the princely state of Hyderabad Social Movements – CBSE Notes for Class 12 Sociology. movement for parliamentary representation in England. Telangana Movement. Distinguish between Peasant and New Farmer’s Movements. Peasants began to reap and harvest crops en masse, defying the authority of the landlords. This movement was launched in the state of Andhra Pradesh against the former Nizam of Hyderabad. (b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India. Peasant Revolt in Telangana 6. The first was a struggle of sharecroppers in Bengal in North Bihar for two thirds share of their produce instead of the customary half. It was able to redistribute 10,00,000 acres of agricultural land to peasants. Telangana, which corresponds to the boundaries of the modern-day Telangana State, was one of the three regions that constituted the erstwhile State of Hyderabad, one of the 600 Princely States that had accepted the British suzerainty in exchange for internal autonomy. by Sociology Group. NCERT Questions. The Telangana Rebellion (IAST: tělaṃgāṇā věţţi cākiri udyamaṃ, "Telangana Bonded Labour Movement"; alternatively, tělaṃgāṇā raitāṃga sāyudha pōrāţaṃ, "Telangana Peasants Armed Struggle") was a peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and, later, the princely state of Hyderabad. The farmers of Bengal wanted to cultivate rice in their fields but European were forcing them to cultivate indigo. The Telangana movement had many positive achievement to its credit. Even after the police action, the annexation of the Hyderabad State and the oppressive military administration by the Indian Army that killed thousands of people, the Telangana Rebellion continued unabated until 1951, when the leadership of the undivided Communist Party of India significantly deviated from Marxism-Leninism and opted to contest Parliamentary elections that were to be held next year. However, seventeen years after the Movement had concluded, the peasants and sharecroppers in the area—many of whom were veterans of the Tebhaga Movement—did not dare any better. It argued that democracy in Ans. The princely state of Hyderabad under Asajahi Nizams; Combination of religious-linguistic domination. The Telangana movement had many positive achievement to its credit. Explain : (a) Why growth of Nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement. The movements ranged from the Telangana Peasants movement and the PEPSU tenants’ movement which continued right before the independence and the Naxalite or Maoist movement which began in the 1960’s and ‘new’ Farmer’s movement in 1980’s. The Telangana Rebellion initially began as an anti-feudal movement, which protested against the brutal feudal oppression and exploitation that the peasantry faced at the hands of the landlords. He also started a guerilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army. For UPSC 2020 preparation, follow BYJU'S. The well known movement are: • Bengal Revolt of 1859 – 62 against the indigo plantation system. Among the well-known individuals at the forefront of the movement were Ravi Narayana Reddy, Maddikayala Omkar, Maddikayala Lakshmi Omkar, Puchalapalli Sundarayya, Pillaipalli Papireddy, Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Sulaiman Areeb, Hassan Nasir, Manthrala Adi Reddy, Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy, Nandyala Srinivasa Reddy, Aruthula Kamaladevi and Bikumalla Sathyam. Moreover, the legislation that sought to “destroy” the feudal system was not brought forth from a sentiment of enlightenment or benevolence by the Indian State’s ruling classes; it was a response to curb the peasant upsurges and movements that had sprung up in the period during and after “independence”. station, the peasant movement spread to several states of India and came to be referred broadly as the Naxalite movement. (i) Peasant movements have taken place from pre-colonial days. Unfortunately, the conditions of the India peasantry haven’t changed much even after “independence”, for what we achieved in 1947 was more akin to that of a transfer of power from the hands of British imperialism to the hands of their Indian comprador classes, who became the ruling classes of the nominally and superficially “independent” Indian State. The agrarian social structure in the Nizam’s Hyderabad was of a feudal order. The movements ranged from the Telangana Peasants movement and the PEPSU tenants’ movement which continued right before the independence and the Naxalite or Maoist movement which began in the 1960’s and ‘new’ Farmer’s movement in 1980’s. Peasant Movements in Independent India. One, the peasantry has to ally itself with the working class to stand up against the oppressive and exploitative dictatorship of the ruling classes and its Hindutva fascist henchmen. With Hyderabad's administration failing after 1945, the Nizam succumbed to the pressure of the Muslim elite and gave-in to the Razzakar Movement. It is noteworthy that the government's proposal to set up a committee to look into the concerns of 35 farmers' organizations protesting against … of . These victorious villages established communes reminiscent of Soviet mirs to administer their region. (i) Women’s Movement: Early 20th Century saw the growth of women’s organisations such as ‘Women’s India Association (WLA) (1917)’ All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926), ‘National Council for Women in India (NEWI) (1925)’. Moreover, the Tebhaga Movement could be seen as a consequence of the Bengal Famine, which had killed three million Bengalis and dwindled the already low rations that the peasantry and sharecroppers had to survive upon. Uniqueness of Telangana movement lies in the fact that seven decades ago, it witnessed an armed struggle against feudal forces, driven by its own economic and social agenda Six decades ago, predominantly Leftist forces fought to implement agrarian and tenancy reforms for Telangana peasants On 23rd May 1967, the police shot dead 11 people: eight women, two infants and a teenager. Two, the question of peasant rights and peasant liberation cannot be solved within the current system, and they certainly cannot happen through electoral politics or through peaceful means. Under the leadership of the Kisan Sabha (the peasant-wing of the undivided Communist Party of India), the Tebhaga Movement was launched in twenty-four districts of undivided Bengal. The movement was powerful enough that not even the bloody and communal Partition of Bengal in 1947 could ebb its tide. Under the raiyatwari system, the peasants owned […] Earlier, Telangana was a part . Read more about the Indigo Revolt, Santhal Uprising etc. The Communist Party of India organised this peasant-led armed rebellion against the rule of the Nizams under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha. Introduction • Where a group of people come together in order to bring about change in society in regard to certain social issues with the aim of changing people’s perspectives about that aspect. It was again separated from Andhra Pradesh to establish the State of Telangana in 2014. •Deccan Riots of 1857 against money lenders. NEW FARMER’S MOVEMENT: It began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The contents of this site are ©️ 2020 Telangana Publications pvt. NEW FARMER’S MOVEMENT: It began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. [7], For the movement for Telangana's statehood, see, 1946–1951 Peasant rebellion in Telangana and Hyderabad, India, Nizam's resistance to join India/Pakistan, "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946-51", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. The Government of West Bengal sent police forces to quell the uprising. The passage of the two agrarian bills by the Indian State a few days ago is, therefore, the culmination of the ruling class’s efforts to subjugate the Indian peasantry under its boots. Moplah Rebellion in Malabar 5. While the Tebhaga Movement and Telangana Rebellion had its genesis before the Indian State had gained “independence” and the “independent” Indian State had attempted to “destroy” the feudal system by “abolishing” the Zamindari system, many areas and regions of the country continued to play host to the oppressive feudal system and the upper caste landlord classes that significantly benefitted from it. Answer: However, the genesis of the Telangana movement lies deep into the history of the region itself. 1.Write short notes on: Ans. One of the most politically effective peasant movements was seen in the erstwhile State of Hyderabad. With the rise in agrarian stress, the peasants of Maharashtra rose to revolt in 1875. Ans : (i) Peasant movements have taken place from pre-colonial days. 1.Write short notes on: Ans. While this might seem like a fair arrangement, it has to be borne in mind that it was the peasants and sharecroppers who had to provide almost all of the labour for sowing, reaping and harvesting the grain while the landlord class played no part, be it direct or indirect, in the production process. Around 4000 peasants lost their lives in the struggle fighting feudal private armies. regionally organised, non-party organisation; The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and antiurban. Telangana Movement Revisited, K. Balagopal, The Imperial Crisis in the Deccan, J. F. Richards, The. regionally organised, non-party organisation; The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and antiurban. Land reforms were recognised as important and various acts were passed to implement them. The initial modest aims were to do away with the illegal and excessive exploitation meted out by these feudal lords in the name of bonded labour. Some of the most important peasant movements in India are as follows: 1. Moreover, the Indian Communist Movement had significantly changed. At the time of Independence peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51) emerged; B. Part Two: First Phase and Its Lessons", "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-51. In the villages controlled by guerrillas, vethi and forced labour disappeared. in the article. Ltd However, the liberalization and globalization of the Indian State’s economy in 1991 only went on to worsen the condition of the Indian peasantry, to the extent that more than 3,30,000 peasants across the country have taken their lives as a result of not being able to lead dignified and prosperous lives in a system that leeches their labour to satisfy the interests of a few. While we must provide critical support to the all-India strike that our country’s peasantry has called to protest against the passage of the two anti-people and anti-farmer bills, we must also learn from the lessons that the three movements have been able to teach us. (i) Peasant movements have taken place from pre-colonial days. SCERT Telangana Class 6 Social Textbooks. Peasants protested against the Nizams rule. The rebellion was led by the Communist Party of India under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha. The Telangana region was merged with Andhra state, while formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. At the time of Independence we had the two most classical cases of peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-7) and the Telangana movement (1946-51). Part Three: Pitted against the Indian Army", "Demand for installing Chakali Ilamma's statue", "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre", "Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Telangana_Rebellion&oldid=984974507, Revolutionary movement for Indian independence, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. Match the following:ryot - villagemahal- peasantnij- cultivation on ryot’s landsryoti- cultivation on planter’s own landAnswer:ryot – Nizam. by Sociology Group. Although the Indian State and its ruling classes brought forth nominal legislation that had apparently gotten rid of the Zamindari system, the legislation had sufficient loopholes and workarounds that the landlord classes were able to use to bypass the new land laws to ensure that their landholdings were kept intact. Selected/Waiting List of Players for 35th Annual NCERT Staff Tournament 2019; Tentative Priority/Change list of Type-I to Type-V quarters for the month of July, 2019 - January,2020 ; Notification regarding 35th Annual NCERT Staff Tournament-2019 The demand of the peasantry was that landlords should only get one-third (about 30%) of the year’s produce, and the peasantry and sharecroppers should be able to keep the remaining grain for themselves and their families. Peasants protested against the Nizams rule. Ans. [5] The Communist Party of India, although weak today, still retains strong support in the grassroots of Telangana. Naxalbari was one of the many places that had been hit by the storm of the Tebhaga Movement. In the process tens of thousands of people lost their lives, the majority that died during the army's movement were Muslims. Some peasants also stole grain from the stores of the landlords, and they also snatched firearms from them. The movement took place between 1858 and 1914 remained localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. They wanted proper working system. The movement took place between 1858 and 1914 remained localised, disjointed and confined to particular grievances. Her revolt inspired many to join the movement. Nov 26, 2020 - Spectrum: Summary of Peasant Movements 1857-1947 UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. Bengal was no exception, as the Bargardari Act of 1950 had no provision to do away with the feudal system and the landlord classes. Question 1. These samsthans were ruled mostly by Deshasthas,[2] Reddys and Velama,[citation needed] known as doralu. The revolt started in 1946 against the oppressive feudal lords and quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts in around 4000 villages. The well known movement are: •Bengal Revolt of 1859 – 62 against the indigo plantation system. He became its chairperson in 1930. This theoretical paper was able to demonstrate that the Rebellion could only be successful if it can follow the Chinese model of armed agrarian revolution and protracted people’s war to achieve its political and economic aims. Naxalbari – in West Bengal it started off as peasant movement and slowly became New Farmers Movement; Started off by farmers in a few places like Tamil Nadu, Punjab. While in a few places the peasantry was able to implement their legitimate demands peacefully, most of the movement was a violent one where the peasantry had to combat the violence of the landlords and the police forces that had come out in support of the landlords. Naxalbari – in West Bengal it started off as peasant movement and slowly became New Farmers Movement; Started off by farmers in a few places like Tamil Nadu, Punjab. In Telangana region, the land ownership was in the hands of very few ruling class people. However, dissidents within the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were becoming increasingly critical and disillusioned with the Party’s sole focus on Parliamentary politics. Telangana Movement, Biggest peasant guerrilla war of modern Indian history affecting 3000 villages and 3 million populations.

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